NHLBI TOPMed: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)
CARDIA is a study examining the etiology and natural history of cardiovascular disease beginning in young adulthood. In 1985-1986, a cohort of 5115 healthy black and white men and women, aged 18-30 years, were selected to have approximately the same number of people in subgroups of age (18-24 and 25-30), sex, race, and education (high school or less, and more than high school) within each of four US Field Centers. These same participants were asked to participate in follow-up examinations during 1987-1988 (Year 2), 1990-1991 (Year 5), 1992-1993 (Year 7), 1995-1996 (Year 10), 2000-2001 (Year 15), 2005-2006 (Year 20), 2010-2011 (Year 25) and 2015-2016 (Year 30). In addition to the follow-up examinations, participants are contacted regularly for the ascertainment of information on out-patient procedures and hospitalizations experienced between contacts. Within the past five years, 95% of the original surviving cohort has been contacted.
While the specifics of each examination have differed somewhat, data have been collected on a variety of factors believed to be related to heart disease. These include conditions with clear links to heart disease, such as blood pressure, cholesterol and other lipids. Data have also been collected on physical measurements, such as weight and skinfold fat, as well as lifestyle factors such as substance use (tobacco and alcohol), dietary and exercise patterns, behavioral and psychological variables, medical and family history, and other chemistries (e.g., insulin and glucose). In addition, subclinical atherosclerosis was measured via echocardiography during Years 5, 10, and 25, computed tomography during Years 15 and 20, and carotid ultrasound during Year 20.