NHLBI TOPMed: Study of Asthma Phenotypes and Pharmacogenomic Interactions by Race-Ethnicity (SAPPHIRE)
Started in 2007, the Study of Asthma Phenotypes and Pharmacogenomic Interactions by Race-ethnicity (SAPPHIRE) is one of the largest asthma cohort studies in the United States. Its overarching goal is to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of asthma and asthma medication treatment response. The cohort was recruited from a large health care system serving southeast Michigan and the Detroit metropolitan area, and the participants broadly represent the demographic and socioeconomic diversity of the region. Control participants (i.e., patients without a diagnosis with asthma) were recruited from the same health system and geographic region. By virtue of their health system enrollment, both asthma case and control patients have longitudinal clinical information which was routinely collected as part of their care. Both case and control patients underwent at detailed evaluation at the time of enrollment which included lung function testing and bronchodilator response. The SAPPHIRE cohort is a member of the Asthma Translational Genomics Collaborative (ATGC). The latter was selected for whole genome sequencing in Phase 3 of the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute's TOPMed Program. The SAPPHIRE sample selected for sequencing includes African American and/or Latino individuals with and without asthma.