NHLBI TOPMed: Genetics of Lipid Lowering Drugs and Diet Network (GOLDN)
The GOLDN study was initiated to assess how genetic factors interact with environmental (diet and drug) interventions to influence blood levels of triglycerides and other atherogenic lipid species and inflammation markers (registered at clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT00083369). The study recruited Caucasian participants primarily from three-generational pedigrees from two NHLBI Family Heart Study (FHS) field centers (Minneapolis, MN and Salt Lake City, UT). Only families with at least two siblings were recruited and only participants who did not take lipid-lowering agents (pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals) for at least 4 weeks prior to the initial visit were included. The diet intervention followed the protocol of Patsch et al. (1992). The whipping cream (83% fat) meal had 700 Calories/m2 body surface area (2.93 mJ/m2 body surface area): 3% of calories were derived from protein (instant nonfat dry milk) and 14% from carbohydrate (sugar). The ratio of polyunsaturated to saturated fat was 0.06 and the cholesterol content of the average meal was 240 mg. The mixture was blended with ice and flavorings. Blood samples were drawn immediately before (fasting) and at 3.5 and 6 hours after consuming the high-fat meal. The diet intervention was administered at baseline as well as after a 3-week treatment with 160 mg micronized fenofibrate. Participants were given the option to complete one or both (diet and drug) interventions. Of all participants, 1079 had phenotypic data and provided appropriate consent, and underwent whole genome sequencing through the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program.
Comprehensive phenotypic and pedigree data for GOLDN study participants are available through dbGaP phs000741.